Arteel GE, Naba A, The liver matrisome, looking beyond collagens, JHEP Reports (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2020.100115.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a diverse microenvironment that maintains bi-directional communication with surrounding cells to regulate cell and tissue homeostasis. The classical definition of the ECM has more recently been extended to include non-fibrillar proteins that either interact or are structurally affiliated with the ECM and has been coined the €˜matrisome.’ In addition to providing the structure and architectural support for cells and tissue, the matrisome serves as a reservoir for growth factors and cytokines, as well as a signaling hub via which cells can communicate with their environment and vice-versa. The matrisome is a master regulator of tissue homeostasis and organ function and dynamically and appropriately respond to any stress or injury. Failure to properly regulate these responses can lead to changes in the matrisome that are maladaptive. Hepatic fibrosis is a canonical example of ECM dyshomeostasis, leading to accumulation of predominantly collagenous ECM; indeed, hepatic fibrosis is considered almost synonymous with collagen accumulation. However, the qualitative and quantitative alterations of the hepatic matrisome during fibrosis are much more diverse than simple accumulation of collagens and occur long before fibrosis is histologically detected. A deeper understanding of the hepatic matrisome and its response to injury could yield new mechanistic insights into disease progression and regression, as well as potentially identify new biomarkers for both. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of the hepatic ECM in liver diseases, and new “omic” approaches to study this compartment.
For full text, please click here.