Jerry Vockley, MD, PhD
Jerry Vockley, MD, PhD

van Rijt WJ, Jager EA, Allersma DP, Aktuğlu Zeybek AÇ, Bhattacharya K, Debray FG, Ellaway CJ, Gautschi M, Geraghty MT, Gil-Ortega D, Larson AA, Moore F, Morava E, Morris AA, Oishi K, Schiff M, Scholl-Bürgi S, Tchan MC, Vockley J, Witters P, Wortmann SB, van Spronsen F, Van Hove JLK, Derks TGJ. Efficacy and safety of D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate (D,L-3-HB) treatment in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Genet Med. 2020 Jan 6;10.1038/s41436-019-0739-z. doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0739-z. PMID: 31904027.

Purpose: Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a life-threatening, ultrarare inborn error of metabolism. Case reports described successful D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate (D,L-3-HB) treatment in severely affected MADD patients, but systematic data on efficacy and safety is lacking.
Methods: A systematic literature review and an international, retrospective cohort study on clinical presentation, D,L-3-HB treatment method, and outcome in MADD(-like) patients.
Results: Our study summarizes 23 MADD(-like) patients, including 14 new cases. Median age at clinical onset was two months (interquartile range [IQR]: 8 months). Median age at starting D,L-3-HB was seven months (IQR: 4.5 years). D,L-3-HB doses ranged between 100 and 2600 mg/kg/day. Clinical improvement was reported in 16 patients (70%) for cardiomyopathy, leukodystrophy, liver symptoms, muscle symptoms, and/or respiratory failure. D,L-3-HB appeared not effective for neuropathy. Survival appeared longer upon D,L-3-HB compared with historical controls. Median time until first clinical improvement was one month, and ranged up to six months. Reported side effects included abdominal pain, constipation, dehydration, diarrhea, and vomiting/nausea. Median D,L-3-HB treatment duration was two years (IQR: 6 years). D,L-3-HB treatment was discontinued in 12 patients (52%).
Conclusion: The strength of the current study is the international pooling of data demonstrating that D,L-3-HB treatment can be effective and safe in MADD(-like) patients.
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